A comparison of the racial stratification systems in the united states and mexico
Social stratification mexico
It differs from the income distribution in that it looks at the distribution of asset ownership in a society, rather than the current income of members of that society. In feudal Japan and Confucianist China, wealthy merchants occupied the lowest ranks in society. While population doubled from to , gross domestic product GDP , the sum of national production and a common measure of economic growth, increased sixfold during the same period. Mexican officials intentionally spread a racial ideology, known as mestizaje, that encouraged miscegenation between European and indigenous people. Social mobility varies between countries and over time, with status more or less tied to social position at birth in different cultural contexts. For example, absolute age may cause a low income if one is too young or too old to perform productive work. It promoted the use of planned miscegenation the mixing of racial groups through reproduction as a eugenic strategy to improve the overall quality of the population. To remain competitive in the international market, Mexico has had to offer low wages to its workers, while at the same time allowing high returns and generous concessions to international corporations. Most commonly, social mobility refers to the change in wealth and social status of individuals or families. Only about 25 percent of the difference in net financial assets is explained. Nonetheless, these groups are often categorized on the color hierarchy somewhere between indigenous and European. The social perception of age and its role in the workplace, which may lead to ageism , typically has an intervening effect on employment and income.
These themes have been amply described in the work of Wolffa, b. Over-qualification occurs when an employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job. Poverty can also include a lack of access to social services such as education, healthcare, security, and income.
Communism, an economic system that in its ideal form consists of state ownership of assets and industry and the equal distribution of resources among the population, can be seen as an attempt to eradicate wealth inequality through government policy.
It is also a way to racialize socio-cultural traits.
Since the s, the gap in wealth between the highest and lowest brackets of earners has grown, with 2 percent of the population owning a majority of global wealth and the bottom half of the population owning less than 1 percent of global wealth in the year The rationale for this was to examine the extent to which the huge racial wealth gap was a product of other differences between Whites and Blacks.
In spite of splendid macroeconomic indicators, low levels of inflation, and stable currency, job creation has not kept pace with a growing population and labor pool. Whether ethnicity feeds into a stratification system as a direct, causal factor or as an intervening variable may depend on the level of ethnocentrism within each of the various ethnic populations in a society, the amount of conflict over scarce resources, and the relative social power held within each ethnic category.
Racial stratification theories
As reforms have taken place, the southern states, such as Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Guerrero, have remained isolated from the rest of the country. The concerted emphasis of this economic component has been labor-market processes and their outcomes, especially earnings, occupational prestige, and social mobility. Social Mobility Social mobility is the extent to which individuals can move between social positions, either in their lifetime or between generations. Mexican Economic Growth: In recent decades, the Mexican economy has experienced growth in its primary sector including agriculture and oil extraction , secondary sector auto manufacturing , and tertiary sector including tourism. Map of Indigenous Languages in Mexico: This map shows the regions where there are over , speakers of particular indigenous languages. Whether ethnicity feeds into a stratification system as a direct, causal factor or as an intervening variable may depend on the level of ethnocentrism within each of the various ethnic populations in a society, the amount of conflict over scarce resources, and the relative social power held within each ethnic category. A high level of intergenerational mobility is often considered praiseworthy, and can be seen as a sign of equality of opportunity in a society. Redistribution of Wealth and Public Policy In many societies, attempts have been made to redistribute wealth through property redistribution, taxation, or regulation. Recent data shows that of nine developed countries, the United States and United Kingdom have the lowest intergenerational vertical social mobility, with about half of the advantages of having a parent with a high income passed on to the next generation. Most commonly, social mobility refers to the change in wealth and social status of individuals or families. The descendants of the conquistadors, along with new arrivals from Spain, formed a new elite class of the population. Covert racism often feeds into stratification systems as an intervening variable affecting income, educational opportunities, and housing. This categorization method is used by the National Mexican Institute of Statistics.
based on 104 review