Fox river watermarked paper
A thin polyester film was placed over the crumbs to reduce displacement possibilities. As viewed under normal illumination after eight weeks, all three papers darkened in the area in contact with the Groomstick. For each solution samples of all three papers were immersed in the same bath, and polyester film was placed on the water surface to ensure immersion of the papers and to prevent evaporation of the liquid. To determine the parameters of susceptibility to damage from such applications, the following solvents were chosen for testing: acetone, amyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, diacetone alcohol, dichloromethane, dimethylformamide, ethanol, methanol, methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate in methanol and trichlorotrifluoroethane, methyl ethyl ketone, naphtha, petroleum benzine, 2-propanol, tetrahydrofuran, trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylenes. A positive destructive test can be achieved through the use of numerous organic solvents. Browning writes briefly of simulated or chemical watermarks and identification techniques. Rantanen suggests that an identification can be made under the microscope using raking reflectance illumination. To determine whether the watermarked materials interact with the paper as the patent states, the papers were examined under magnification. The chemical watermarks also reflected the color of the underlying trays to an unusual degree. In Focus Appleton, Wis. Erasers seemed not to affect the watermark. Upon removal, the samples were left to air dry on a polyester screen. Le Barre, E. Davidson Watermark Collection consists of stamps, letterhead, paper samples, Paper product with watermark and process therefor.
Swets and Zeitlinger. Long-wave ultraviolet illumination —nm causes chemical watermarks to fluoresce opaque white, thereby revealing them on unbrightened papers. A catalog of foreign watermarks found on paper used in America, — Based on the repetitions of chemicals cited in the patents, tests to detect epoxy resins, formaldehyde, melamine, or urea- or melamine-formaldehyde were chosen Browning Short-wave ultraviolet illumination, GE sample, brightened paper Stationery papers often contain bluing agents or optical brighteners, which fluoresce brilliantly, offering a contrast to the chemical watermark and aiding in the identification process.
Even the laid and chain lines of a paper with a chemical watermark should be carefully examined and tested before any treatment, as it is possible such lines may also be chemically produced Carlson Personalized Stationery Paper Source ; Choose from exclusive designs and colors on top quality paper customized just the way you want it.
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This phenomenon occurs because the traditional watermark is a physical manipulation of the paper, whereas the chemical watermark acts more like a size in the paper. The crumbs from the erasure procedure were gathered and laid on the watermarked area. Natural aging, cross-linking of the material, or uncontrolled fluctuating environmental conditions in the museum may be the cause of this phenomenon. The artificially aged marks appeared sharper under ultraviolet illumination than under normal illumination. The results from these experiments were recorded through written and photographic documentation. Short-wave ultraviolet illumination, GE sample, brightened paper Stationery papers often contain bluing agents or optical brighteners, which fluoresce brilliantly, offering a contrast to the chemical watermark and aiding in the identification process. Under long-wave ultraviolet illumination, the marks on unbrightened papers appear lighter than their surroundings; they fluoresce as an opaque white in contrast to a dark, nonfluorescing background. See more ideas about Typography, Paper and Ageing. Therefore, the interactions of the following materials with chemical watermarks were studied: seven types of erasers; four aqueous alkaline solutions; eighteen organic solvents; and seven bleaches and bleach neutralizers antichlors. Private Watermarks - Paper - Neenah Paper ; Find everything you need to know about watermarked papers.
A nonwatermarked area was similarly exposed to each solvent for comparison. Watermarks also relay historic information that can help date or geographically place a paper, thus validating a manuscript, document, or piece of art.
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Long-wave ultraviolet illumination —nm causes chemical watermarks to fluoresce opaque white, thereby revealing them on unbrightened papers. The watermarks were darker than the paper and opaque. Designs may also be impressed by localized pressure between metal or rubber rollers or dies. Davidson Watermark Collection consists of stamps, letterhead, paper samples, Strictly speaking, a watermark is a design. Chloramine-T diminished all three watermarks. Both beta and Grenz radiography will record low-density materials, such as paper, on film. Hunter, D. Since the traditional watermark is made of the same material as the rest of the paper, it will react like the paper to ultraviolet light, whether or not the paper has been optically brightened. The first watermarked Western paper dates from the 13th century. Natural aging, cross-linking of the material, or uncontrolled fluctuating environmental conditions in the museum may be the cause of this phenomenon. Untreated papers were subjected to humid and dry artificial aging in an effort to replicate the condition of naturally aged sheets.
Revolution in the process of watermarking. Similar types of information, such as a particular brand of paper, manufacture from a specific mill, or depiction of a logo for a business or organization, are conveyed in watermarks today.
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